This edition has been streamlined, shortened, and significantly updated as laws in Japan (but not the concept or process of law) have changed. Many additional new and old cases from the Supreme Court of Japan have been added. All material was either translated by the editors, by the Supreme Court of Japan, or by other equally reliable sources. Focusing on the process of law in a radically different culture from one's own, yet a culture in which similar results are reached, is a very effective teaching tool. Port et al. demonstrate that utilitarianism is as effective in Japan as in the United States for understanding and predicting judicial outcomes.